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PREGNANCY: SPECIAL NUTRITION FOR FIRST-TIME MOTHERS OVER THIRTY
Perhaps the greatest nutritional difference between mothers over thirty and those under is the former’s need for more calcium. Pregnant or not, the older a woman gets, the greater her need for calcium.
Calcium pills are not advised as a replacement for milk, unless prescribed by a doctor, but if you dislike drinking milk, you can always disguise it in soups, puddings, quiches, and a variety of other dishes. For example:
Dandi cottage scrambles
(1 serving = approx. 82 mg. calcium)
2 eggs                                       pepper to taste
1   scant tbsp. butter or            4 oz cottage cheese
margarine
Beat eggs. Melt butter in frying pan and pour in eggs. As they begin to set, add cottage cheese and then scramble in pan until done. Add salt and pepper. (One serving)
Banana beauty
(1 serving = approx. 296 mg. calcium)
2 sliced ripe bananas                   3/4 pint reconstituted nonfat
1/4 cup orange juice                       dry milk (but substitute 1 cup
dash of vanilla                             ice cubes for each cup water)
Put ingredients into blender – adding ice slowly – and blend until thick and creamy. (Two to three servings)
Honey heaven
(1 serving = approx. 296 mg. calcium)
1 cup skim (or low fat) milk 3/4  tsp. vanilla
1 tsp. honey                               cinnamon
Warm milk, honey, and vanilla, then pour quickly in blender to froth. Serve and sprinkle with cinnamon. (One serving)
Using tahini – which is made from sesame seeds – mixed with yoghurt makes a fine dip for raw calcium-rich and low-calorie vegetables, such as broccoli.
Also be sure to include plenty of foods rich in vitamin B6 and folic acid in your diet, particularly whole-grains and vegetables.
Supplement Suggestions
•   High-potency multiple vitamin and mineral, a.m. and p.m.
•   Multiple chelated minerals (2 tablets should equal 1,000 mg. calcium and 500 mg. magnesium), a.m. and p.m.
•   Folic acid, 800 mcg., 3 times daily
Caution: The above regimen is neither prescriptive nor intended as medical advice. Before starting any regimen, check with your doctor.
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SEXUAL ASSAULT: WHAT IS IT?

Sexual assault, in its various forms, affects many people’s lives. It is a subject most of us would rather ignore, because it is unpleasant. Ignoring it will not make it go away, so perhaps learning more about it, and doing something about it will help to decrease its incidence and effects.

What is it? Assault is an act of violence by one person against another. There are endless possible ways this may happen. An assault may vary from a threat, to a rape or a near-fatal bashing. Assault is a crime, and is punishable by law.

Sexual assault has many forms. It can happen to anyone, of any age (including children), and does not necessarily involve sexual intercourse. Any sexual contact which is unwanted, or which occurs without the consent of a participant constitutes sexual assault. It is behaviour of a sexual nature which makes the victim feel uncomfortable or afraid.

Incest is when the sexual assault involves two members of the same family, most commonly assault by a father on his daughter.

There are many different experiences which can be called sexual assault, so it is not easy to define. The Centre Against Sexual Assault (CASA) in Melbourne has created a working definition, in which the unwanted behaviours may include:

• touching, fondling, kissing

• being made to look at, or pose for pornographic photographs

• being masturbated or being forced to masturbate another person

• voyeurism

• exhibitionism

• oral/genital contact

• penetration of the victim’s vagina, mouth and/or anus with a penis or object (also called rape).

So the term sexual assault includes many criminal acts. There are several legal terms for the actual type of assault (like rape, aggravated rape, indecent assault, gross indecency, incest, etc.). The crime a person may be charged for, and the maximum penalty for the crime may vary in different states and countries.

Some other forms of sexual assault, such as sexual harassment in the workplace or at school, also constitute unwanted behaviour of a sexual nature. This may take the form of ‘off jokes, suggestive comments, sexual propositions, or unwanted physical contact, for example. Sexual harassment is illegal in Australia. Employers are obliged to ensure that their staff are not subject to sexual harassment, and are advised to set up channels through which people can make complaints and take action. If these channels are not available or are insufficient, any person who is being, or has been, sexually harassed can take the matter to the Commission for Equal Opportunity.

Some people are more familiar with the term sexual abuse. Abuse is defined as ‘misuse, perversion, unjust practice, violation or maltreatment’. Sexual assault is abuse. A person’s emotional and physical state are abused in sexual assault.

Most sexual assault is committed against women. Most offenders are men. Social theories have been proposed to explain this, and it may be that the traditional roles and power balances of men and women in society play a large part in why sexual assault exists and is so prevalent. Understanding the reasons behind sexual assault may be useful in working towards decreasing, and eventually preventing, the high level of sexual assault in our society.

Boys and men can also be the victims of sexual assault. Again, it usually involves an unequal distribution of power (for example, an adult assaulting a child), and can be an act of aggression and hostility. Being a victim of sexual assault is just as much a violation and abuse when the victim is male as when the victim is female.

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NEW METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION: MALE HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION

How effective is male hormonal contraception?

In trials of men using this method, 80 percent of men had no sperm in their semen and the rest had such low numbers of sperm that it would be very unlikely for their partners to fall pregnant And there were very few side effects in men who were using this method.

Why would I want to choose male hormonal contraception?

Men who want or need to take responsibility for contraception and who don’t like using condoms may choose to use male hormonal contraception. It might also be a good choice for a man who is considering a vasectomy but is not ready to make such a permanent decision.

How do you use male hormonal contraception?

At present male hormonal contraception is only available by joining a clinical trial. Trials have been run in Australia as well as the United Kingdom and the United States. Men are given either a dose of injectable progestogen every three months or they take a higher dose progestogen-only pill by mouth every day. They have to take these pills at the same time every day for it to be effective. It may be a few years before male hormonal contraception is widely available.

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AN IUD IN AN EMERGENCY

How does the IUD work as emergency contraception? If you have an IUD inserted it causes changes in the lining of the uterus. If an egg is fertilised and makes its way to the uterus it cannot implant in the lining and grow there.

Insertion of a Copper IUD within five days of unprotected sex is very effective at preventing pregnancy, with less than a 1 percent failure rate. It has to be a Copper IUD to be effective, because hormonal IUDs take too long to work to be useful for emergency contraception.

How do you use the IUD for emergency contraception? You just have the IUD inserted no more than five days after you have had unprotected sex. The only difference is that in this case you have an IUD inserted because you think you are at risk of becoming pregnant and you want to reduce that risk. You can of course choose to have the IUD removed after the next period, though few people actually decide to do this having gone to the trouble and expense of having the IUD inserted in the first place.

What does it cost? A Copper IUD costs from between $82 and $90 and can be bought at a chemist or a Family Planning Centre. You may also need to pay some medical costs for the doctor to insert the device so check the costs before deciding to go ahead with the insertion.

Things to think about if you are considering emergency contraception. Do you need to use more reliable contraception? If you think you do, the Copper IUD may be a good idea if it is suitable for you, because it will act as emergency contraception and then stay in place for up to ten years.

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THE COPPER IUD: PROBLEMS IF I WANT USE IT

Is there anything else that may be a problem if I want to use a Copper IUD?

There are some things you should talk over with your doctor if you are considering a Copper IUD because they may need to be sorted out before you can have the IUD inserted.

Tell your doctor if you have not had any children but you want to have children in the future. Tell your doctor if your periods are very painful or they last a long time, or both. Periods tend to be heavier and longer when a woman is wearing an IUD, so you may want to think again if your periods are heavy and long already. If you have had an ectopic pregnancy, which is a pregnancy in one of your Fallopian tubes this is also something that needs to be discussed before you decide on a Copper IUD.

If you are anaemic, that is you don’t have enough iron in your blood, or you have fibroids or other conditions that change the shape of your uterus or cervix you will need to discuss these too. It is also important to consider the risk if you have a medical condition that could affect your recovery if you got an internal infection. For example, if you have rheumatic heart disease, or you are being treated with steroids or other medications which prevent your immune system from working properly.

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SPERMICIDES: QUESTIONS PEOPLE ASK ABOUT SPERMICIDE

Q. Does spermicide have any side effects?

A. Very few people are allergic to spermicide, but those who are usually feel itchy or sore. It is best to go to a doctor to be checked if the symptoms don’t stop in a few hours because you might have an infection rather than an allergy.

Q. If I use spermicide with my diaphragm, and my partner comes and then we start again should I put an applicator of spermicide in before he comes again?

A. No, it isn’t necessary.

Q. I have heard that you can also get spermicides in foams and creams and in tablets that you put in your vagina. Where can you get them?

A. You can only get these types of spermicides overseas, although they used to be available in Australia. Now, you can only buy spermicide gel in Australia.

Some things to think about if you are considering spermicide

• Remember that spermicide by itself can be unreliable. When it is used by itself it must be inserted very close to the opening in your cervix for it to work best and even if you manage to put it there, your body heat makes it melt and it can run out of your vagina easily.

• You have to remember to have it with you if you think you may have sex when you are not at home.

• If spermicide is the only contraception you are prepared to use, it is better to use it than to use nothing at all, just as long as you are aware of the risk. You should really consider what you would do if you had an unplanned pregnancy, so you could be prepared if it happened.

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